The preparation of Bakelite from condensation reaction of phenol and formaldehyde is written as. An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. Captions. Bakelite is a Polymer made up of the Monomers Phenol and Formaldehyde. In the initial process of synthesizing, Bakelite involves in the phenol and formaldehyde heating in the presence of catalysts such as hydrochloric acid, ammonia, and zinc chloride. [online] Available at: American Chemical Society. Bakelite could be made into several colors, because of its ability to make into several colors. Author has 535 answers and 3M answer views Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol… This is the chemical structure of Bakelite. Structure of Bakelite Report ; Posted by Utpal Nath 1 year ago. [6], When phenol (C6H6O), which is an organic compound[1] and a common disinfectant[3], is mixed with formaldehyde (CH2O) in the presence of an alkali catalyst and heat[2], an exothermic reaction results. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. bakelite structure. Water and steam are then drawn off as the mixture cools, and a viscous brown resin remains. Due to the adverse properties of Bakelite, it could be used for several applications: As Bakelite is a good insulator, Bakelite is utilized in non-conducting parts of radios and several electronic devices such as switches, sockets, wire insulation, brake pads, etc. Muhammad Usman (2008-chem-02-B) Properties of required chemicals: 1. ( Log Out /  What to learn next based on college curriculum. (2008). 3-D_Structure_of_Bakelite.png ‎ (563 × 548 pixels, file size: 16 KB, MIME type: image/png) File information. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or … The orthohydroxylbenzyl alcohol results in the production of Novalac. Once content is flagged, it is hidden from users and is reviewed by myCBSEguide team against our … Bakelite has the tendency to mold so it is used for manufacturing of parts used in modern days. CBSE > Class 12 > Chemistry 2 answers; Jd Chouhan 1 year ago (C6H6 o CH2o)X 0 Thank You. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin called “Novolak,” which never became a market success. Polymers. The condensation reaction of formation of Bakelite is extremely exothermic (or) a water molecule is lost for the cooling process. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Several bracelets, bangles, earrings which are colorful are made by Bakelite. HJG Van Zyl - 18300111, https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin, http://www.elvenkrafte.com/bakelite%20presentation.htm, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/bakelite.html, https://global.britannica.com/science/Bakelite. The reaction has to be carried out in pressure else the formed product will be brittle and the density of the material would be less. Ortho and parahydroxyl benzyl alcohol formation by the mixture of reactants of formaldehyde and phenol. In the structure of Bakelite, the phenol and formaldehyde are cross-linked. When heated Bakelite is malleable, it could be made into liquid. Bakelite | chemical compound. This content has been hidden. ( Log Out /  From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. A combination of formaldehyde and phenol leads to Bakelite. Polymers has high molecular mass. Figure 1 – The figure shows the chemical process whereby phenol and formaldehyde are mixed and heated in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Bakelite set to rigid, hard, scratch resistant, in fusible, water resistance, insoluble solids, which are resistance to non-oxidising acids and many organic solvents. Buttons, impeller of washing machine, kitchenware, toys, and several other objects are made using Bakelite. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. Some of the reinforcing fillers like wood flour, pulp of cotton, mica, gypsum, asbestos are added to resins of molding such as Bakelite. Because Bakelite is easily shaped it is used in many different ways and in many different shapes and sizes. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The chemical process and the final atomic structure of Bakelite are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively. They have excellent electrical insulating character. Bakelite is an item a jewelry collector should keep an eye out for considering how prices have risen over the last few decades. Posted on September 30, 2020 by . Bakeland was looking for a replacement for shellac. When the phenol and formaldehyde are mixed together, the reaction of the the chemicals under the correct pressure and temperature creates this amazing, hard plastic. Plastic and Bakelite are both organic polymers, having a very large molecular weight though there exists a difference between the two based on their properties and usage. Explore Alibaba.com for structure of bakelite that meet all quality expectations. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite can also be tested using the “hot water” method. Release date: 22 November 2012 For protective uses and as coating in industry, Bakelite could be used. Besides fillers, the curing process could be accelerated by catalyst. Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. Bakelite in solid colors is the most recognizable type even without employing testing measures. It could also be used as binding agents and adhesives. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Bakelite’s characteristics include having low electrical conductivity and high heat and chemical resistance. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Mark describes the structure of Bakelite and how the links between molecules mean that it will not melt at higher temperatures (like celluloid did before it). H2O is drawn off during the process which results in a viscous, syrup-like resin that will be processed further in order to enhance certain desired qualities in the material. The trademark rights for this plastic are owned by a German company called Bakelite AG, in many countries. Today, objects made from Bakelite are considered highly collectible, although in its glory days of the 1930s and 1940s, it was seen as an inexpensive alternative to high-end jewelry materials such as jade and pearl. Experiment # 1: Preparation of Bakelite. Structure of BakeliteDue to its hardness and durability, it was considered as a material for making pennies in the United States during World War II, due to copper being needed for shell casings. Date: 28-09-10. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. One or more users have flagged this content as inappropriate. (2016). New York: Marshall Cavendish. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. However, ingestion of stronger solutions is dangerous to human and animal life. [2] The new mixture is then forced into heated moulds under high pressure. ( Log Out /  Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. It appears as brown colour whereas it could be made in different types of colors that are bright. JJ Rossouw - 18961371 © 2003-2020 Chegg Inc. All rights reserved. Glacial Acetic acid: Harmful: Dilute acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, is harmless. When fillers are added, the enhanced properties are, Higher electrical resistance, chemical resistance, and thermal resistance. [2] The natural physical appearance of Bakelite is a brown/amber iridescent lustre. It is an example of thermosetting resin of phenol and formaldehyde. English. When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. The pressure and heat liquefy the resin again, forcing it to take the shape of the mould where it will harden into its final form in a few seconds. A synthetic resin that is made from synthetic substances is Bakelite. Elvenkrafte.com. The condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of acid or base as catalyst. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. If it gives off a formaldehyde smell, it is Bakelite. E-mail: [email protected] ... After further reaction, an insoluble and infusible body structure C-stage resin, also known as insoluble phenolic resin, is obtained. Authentic bakelite jewelry can sell for thousands of dollars, so it's important you learn how to tell the difference between genuine and imposter plastic jewelry. The condensation reaction of phenol and formaldehyde results in the product Bakelite. Bakelite is derived by the polymerization of formaldehyde and phenol. The most readily found colors are yellow, ranging from butter yellow to dark butterscotch, followed by various shades of green. Maneet Singh 5 months, 1 week ago. Bakelite or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride was the first plastic made from synthetic components. [online] Available at: Anon, (2016). Bakelite is made up of Phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite is a thermosetting plastic. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. A substance which has a molecular structure built completely from a large number of similar units bonded together known as polymers. To get to the History of Bakelite we must travel back in time to the year 1907 when a Belgian-born chemist, Leo Bakeland came up with a process of combining Phenol with formaldehyde resin. Since Bakelite is a manufactured, synthetic plastic containing incredible amounts of formaldehyde, asbestos and other extremely toxic polymers, those who produced these desirable products, put themselves at risk. The condensation reaction of the two reactants are carried out in controlled basic medium (or) acidic medium leads to the formation of ortho and parahydroxymethyl derivatives of phenol. Because of its high resistance towards heat and electricity, it is used to manufacture in several electronic instruments, parts of automobile, and switches. It contains phenol, formaldehyde and a wood flour filler. Yum. File:3-D Structure of Bakelite.png. Its chemical name is phenolic. The commercial name of phenol formaldehyde resin is Bakelite. Bakelite is another name for phenolic resin, an early form of plastic. Several patterns were made in 1942, but steel was used instead in 1943 and recycled shell casings in 1944 and 1945. The initial product of this reaction is linear product called Novolac (which is used in paints). Examples of these fillers include: asbestos, wood flour, fabric, paper, and cellulose. Once hard, it is crushed into a powder, which is then mixed with various fillers. Red is one of the most popular colors of Bakelite jewelry with collectors. After this final setting of the material it will not be possible to heat and reshape it again. The resin in stage A can also be cured by itself for a long time. [online] Available at: Encyclopedia Britannica. The monomers that are required in the formation of Bakelite are formaldehyde and phenol. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. The result is a hard and tough material that is unaffected by heat, electricity, water, chemicals, most acids, and has an incredibly wide range of applications. Formed by the reaction under heat and pressure of phenol and formaldehyde, generally with a wood flour filler, it was the first plastic made from synthetic components. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Value of Old Plastic Jewelry . Curing is process which leads in the toughening of polymers and hardening of polymers by producing chains of cross-linked polymers. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. Bakelite is easy to identify because it has a slick-looking patina to the inner part of the bangle or on the back part of a brooch or piece. Material Science A244, M&M Engineering Department, University of Stellenbosch, Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. ( Log Out /  Run the piece under hot tap water. However, they are attacked by alkalies due to the presence of free hydroxyl groups in their structure. To enhance the strength and properties of Bakelite, fillers are employed so that Bakelite could be used for several applications. Let us check out the various properties and uses of Bakelite.
It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. A condensation polymerization reaction of phenol and formaldehyde results in the formation of Bakelite. Le résultat final est formé sur la surface d'un film spécial constitué d'éléments organiques ou inorganiques. Change ), NT Conradie - 19673418 History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. In the presence of cross-linking agent, Novolac goes through cross-linking process form Bakelite. Bakelite is the first plastic product to be put into industrial production. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. The steps of reaction involved in the formation of Bakelite are. It can also be made into different colours, but this depends on filler that it is mixed with during the manufacturing process. New Page 1. Baekeland discovered that carefully controlling the speed of the reaction between phenol and formaldehyde produced a mouldable resin. Bakelite could be readily molded, and therefore, it could be used in producing different products. The cost of molding gets reduced when inert filler is added. Bakelite is the first synthetic plastic and is known as a “material of thousand uses” due to its versatile applications. (2016). Build flawless & robust structure of bakelite strong as an ox with aid of leading steel giants. Bakelite was the first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. And Novolac on heating with formaldehyde undergoes cross linking to form Bakelite. It has been aptly named as the ‘Material of a Thousand Uses’. It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in Yonkers, New York, in 1907. File history ; File usage on Commons ; File usage on Commons ; File usage on other wikis Metadata! 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